Technology longer be derived solely from the immediate surroundings of the robot and the input from the robot’s own sensors. In telerobotics, semiautonomous robots are typically controlled by people working across great distances and responding to unpredictable situations. Advanced data correlation and analytics will lead to enhanced situational awareness in robotic with data obtained from connected systems and even the public Internet. The challenge across industries is how to handle the resulting data explosion and significant increase in network traffic. As just one example, consider that in the healthcare industry, successful patient treatment requires management of an exploding amount of digital data—monitoring a single patient can mean processing as much as 1.5GB of raw physiological data per day. To support this new model and the resulting data explosion, developers in almost every industry need common system architectures. An architecture that connects sensors, devices and systems together and to the cloud; an architecture that interoperates between technologies and that span industries. The robotics field is already aligning with the IIoT, and the Internet has evolved to the point where it can deal with complex distributed systems. Opportunities abound to apply lessons learned across industries—a key reason why multinational organizations such as, the Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC) are focusing on defining common architectures for the IIoT. The IIoT will fundamentally change how robots interact and integrate, and common architectures will facilitate interoperability between manufacturers within and across industries. To illustrate some of the challenges in finding architectural commonalities across systems and industries, think about the extreme communications problems that developers of both space rovers and surgical robots must solve. First, consider the challenges at NASA, where the human robotic systems team is experimenting with controlling robots on earth from the International Space Station (ISS) with an ultimate goal of controlling Mars-based robots from orbit. Traditional IP protocols like TCP/IP or UDP/IP do not work over the space-to-earth communication link that is inherently lossy, low bandwidth, intermittent and characterized by multi-second latencies. Unlike communications across a standard Ethernet network that can send Acknowledgements (ACKs) or Negative Acknowledgments (NAKs) within milliseconds or even dozens of microseconds, the space link would be saturated with just the metatraffic from the reliability protocol. In similarly challenging applications, the ESA Telerobotics and Haptics Lab develops robotics technology for advanced humanmachine interaction, extending the human sense of touch to space and planetary environments. In 2015, the team demonstrated one of the first telerobotic control systems for use in space when Andre Schiele from ESA shook hands with NASA astronaut Terry Virts, making a remarkable 5,000 kilometer connection between earth and the ISS. In a completely different environment back on Earth, the MIRS technique involves surgical instruments that are held by specialized robot arms and remotely controlled by a surgeon who virtually regains direct access to the operating field through telepresence and telemanipulation techniques. The telesurgery scenario MiroSurge, developed by DLR coordinates three robots with the objective to perform delicate heart surgery on a beating heart, a procedure otherwise impossible for a surgeon attempting to make a precise incision. Through real-time image processing, the heart is displayed on a screen as a static surface and the surgeon uses haptic feedback to control the robot arms. The robot arms perform the actual surgery and compensate for the beating of the heart, dictating extremely precise control. To enable real-time control, the system closes a distributed loop between the robots and the remote surgeon’s controls at 3 kHz or 3,000 updates per second. As disparate as their environments may seem, the three systems by NASA, ESA and DLR described above are implemented using the RTI Connext DDS framework that helps overcome the communications complexities of telerobotics systems. Connext DDS is based on the Data Distribution Service (DDS) standard. Layered databus architecture In IIoT systems, a common architecture pattern emerges that is made up of multiple databases layered by communication QoS and data model needs. Typical IIoT systems are extremely complex and require sharing data across multiple networks from the edge to the fog to the cloud. For example, in a connected hospital, devices have to communicate within a patient or operating room, to nurses’ stations and off-site monitors, to real-time analytics applications for smart alarming and clinical decision support, and with IT health records. This is challenging for many reasons: because the volume of streaming device data could easily overwhelm hospitals networks; patient data must be securely tracked; and all devices and applications must interoperate. A layered databus architecture is the ideal framework for resolving these challenges and developing multi-tiered IIoT systems of systems. DDS is an international standard that implements this layered databus architectural pattern. The IIC currently represents nearly 300 companies in more than 25 countries. IIC Members share a strategic interest in advancing connectivity between smart devices, systems 38 industrial ethernet book 2.2018 SOURCE: RTI The Mars Rover Data-centric Architecture.
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